TPK1, a Ca(2+)-regulated Arabidopsis vacuole two-pore K(+) channel is activated by 14-3-3 proteins

Plant J. 2007 Nov;52(3):449-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03255.x. Epub 2007 Aug 31.


The vacuole represents a pivotal plant organelle for management of ion homeostasis, storage of proteins and solutes, as well as deposition of cytotoxic compounds. Ion channels, pumps and carriers in the vacuolar membrane under control of cytosolic factors provide for ionic and metabolic homeostasis between this storage organelle and the cytoplasm. Here we show that AtTPK1 (KCO1), a vacuolar membrane localized K(+) channel of the TPK family, interacts with 14-3-3 proteins (general regulating factors, GRFs). Following in planta expression TPK1 and GRF6 co-localize at the vacuolar membrane. Co-localization of wild-type TPK1, but not the TPK1-S42A mutant, indicates that phosphorylation of the 14-3-3 binding motif of TPK1 represents a prerequisite for interaction. Pull-down assays and surface plasmon resonance measurements revealed GRF6 high-affinity interaction with TPK1. Following expression of TPK1 in yeast and isolation of vacuoles, patch-clamp studies identified TPK1 as a voltage-independent and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel. Addition of 14-3-3 proteins strongly increased the TPK1 activity in a dose-dependent manner. However, an inverse effect of GRF6 on the activity of the slow-activating vacuolar (SV) channel was observed in mesophyll vacuoles from Arabidopsis thaliana. Thus, TPK1 seems to provide for a Ca(2+)- and 14-3-3-sensitive mechanism capable of controlling cytoplasmic potassium homeostasis in plants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / chemistry
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Binding Sites
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Down-Regulation
  • Intracellular Membranes / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phosphorylation
  • Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain / chemistry
  • Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain / metabolism*
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Vacuoles / metabolism*


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • KCO1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain
  • Calcium