In mammals, adult neurogenesis has been extensively studied in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and subventricular zone. However, newly proliferated neurons have also been documented in other brain regions, including the amygdala and hypothalamus. In this review, we will examine the evidence for new neurons in the adult amygdala and hypothalamus and then discuss how environmental influences can alter cell proliferation. As some of these environmental effects may be attributed to changes in the levels of circulating hormones, we will provide evidence for estrogen-mediated cell proliferation among different species and between sexes. Finally, we will review recent data suggesting that new neurons may become functionally significant in adulthood.