Primary ciliary dyskinesia in the paediatric population: range and severity of radiological findings in a cohort of patients receiving tertiary care

Clin Radiol. 2007 Oct;62(10):986-93. doi: 10.1016/j.crad.2007.04.015. Epub 2007 Aug 1.


Aim: To investigate the clinical range and severity of radiological findings in a cohort of patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) receiving tertiary care.

Materials and methods: The case notes and clinical test results of 89 children attending the paediatric respiratory disease clinic at our institution were retrospectively analysed. Demographic details including age at diagnosis and common presenting signs and symptoms were studied. Results of chest radiographs, microscopy, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) for quantification of lung damage were analysed.

Results: In a cohort of 89 children with PCD, a presentation chest radiograph was available in 62% of patients (n=55), with all but one demonstrating changes of bronchial wall thickening. HRCT of the lungs, available in 26 patients, were scored using the system described by Brody et al. analysing five specific features of lung disease, including bronchiectasis, mucus plugging, peribronchial thickening, parenchymal changes of consolidation, and ground-glass density, and focal air-trapping in each lobe. Peribronchial thickening was observed using HRCT in 25 patients, while 20 patients had bronchiectasis. Severity scores were highest for the middle and the lingular lobes.

Conclusion: The radiographic findings of the largest reported cohort of patients with PCD are presented, with associated clinical findings. Dextrocardia remains the commonest finding on chest radiography. HRCT demonstrates peribronchial thickening and bronchiectasis, which is most marked in the lower zones. Radiological scoring techniques developed for assessment of cystic fibrosis can also be applied for the assessment of disease severity in this patient population.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kartagener Syndrome / diagnostic imaging*
  • Kartagener Syndrome / therapy
  • Male
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / standards*