A New and Versatile Virosomal Antigen Delivery System to Induce Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses

Vaccine. 2007 Oct 10;25(41):7065-74. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.052. Epub 2007 Aug 14.


The purpose of a vaccine is the induction of effective cellular and/or humoral immune responses against antigens. Because defined antigens are often poor immunogens when administered alone, an adjuvant is required to potentiate the immune response. Most of these adjuvants are designed to induce humoral immune responses, including immunopotentiating reconstituted influenza virosomes (IRIVs). IRIVs are one of the few adjuvants currently licensed for human use with the advantage of an excellent safety profile. To induce a potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immune response CTL epitopes have to be encapsulated into IRIVs. However, the existing encapsulation methods are inefficient or rather laborious. We have developed and characterised a new generation of influenza virosomes (TIRIVs) that induced both, strong CTL and antibody responses against specific antigens of choice. In addition, these virosomes were stabilised and offer the possibility of lyophilisation while retaining all their structural, functional and immunogenic properties after reconstitution. TIRIVs induce strong cellular and humoral immune responses and are a versatile and efficient carrier system with adjuvant properties for a variety of antigens. TIRIVs are not only stabilised but also allow easy formulation of new and/or labile T cell and B cell antigens. Considering their immunogenic properties, their flexibility and their superior storage characteristics TIRIVs provide a versatile technology platform for any vaccination strategy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibody Formation*
  • Antigens / immunology*
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic*
  • Drug Stability
  • Drug Storage
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Orthomyxoviridae / genetics
  • Orthomyxoviridae / immunology*
  • Vaccination / methods*
  • Vaccines, Virosome / genetics
  • Vaccines, Virosome / immunology*


  • Antigens
  • Vaccines, Virosome