Ethnic and racial disparities in diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care

J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2007;15 Suppl 1:S8-12. doi: 10.5435/00124635-200700001-00004.


Studies from four areas of musculoskeletal health care disparities were reviewed to determine the root causes of the disparities and gain insight into measurable interventions. The areas of musculoskeletal health were total joint arthroplasty, amputation for patients with diabetes, rehabilitation of and impairment in patients with stroke, and morbidity associated with unintentional injuries. The Jenkins Model on Health Disparities was used to investigate and rank the contributing causes (socioeconomic status, sociocultural beliefs, racism, biology) of the health care disparities. No single root cause was found for any of the conditions. Thus, all contributing factors must be considered when planning meaningful interventions.

MeSH terms

  • Amputation, Surgical / statistics & numerical data*
  • Arthroplasty, Replacement / statistics & numerical data*
  • Black or African American / statistics & numerical data
  • Culture
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / ethnology
  • Humans
  • Minority Groups / statistics & numerical data*
  • Rehabilitation / statistics & numerical data
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Stroke / ethnology*
  • Stroke Rehabilitation
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Wounds and Injuries / ethnology