Effects of Fis on Escherichia coli gene expression during different growth stages

Microbiology (Reading). 2007 Sep;153(Pt 9):2922-2940. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.2007/008565-0.


Fis is a nucleoid-associated protein in Escherichia coli that is abundant during early exponential growth in rich medium but is in short supply during stationary phase. Its role as a transcriptional regulator has been demonstrated for an increasing number of genes. In order to gain insight into the global effects of Fis on E. coli gene expression during different stages of growth in rich medium, DNA microarray analyses were conducted in fis and wild-type strains during early, mid-, late-exponential and stationary growth phases. The results uncovered 231 significantly regulated genes that were distributed over 15 functional categories. Regulatory effects were observed at all growth stages examined. Coordinate upregulation was observed for a number of genes involved in translation, flagellar biosynthesis and motility, nutrient transport, carbon compound metabolism, and energy metabolism at different growth stages. Coordinate down-regulation was also observed for genes involved in stress response, amino acid and nucleotide biosynthesis, energy and intermediary metabolism, and nutrient transport. As cells transitioned from the early to the late-exponential growth phase, different functional categories of genes were regulated, and a gradual shift occurred towards mostly down-regulation. The results demonstrate that the growth phase-dependent Fis expression triggers coordinate regulation of 15 categories of functionally related genes during specific stages of growth of an E. coli culture.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Escherichia coli / growth & development*
  • Escherichia coli / metabolism
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / metabolism*
  • Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein / genetics
  • Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA


  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Factor For Inversion Stimulation Protein
  • Fis protein, E coli

Associated data

  • GEO/GSE7398