The development and initial validation of a questionnaire on smoking urges

Br J Addict. 1991 Nov;86(11):1467-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb01732.x.


A 32-item questionnaire on smoking urges was administered to 230 daily cigarette smokers assigned to one of three levels of cigarette deprivation (0, 1 or 6 hours). Factor analyses showed that a two-factor solution best described the item structure for each of the three deprivation levels and for the entire sample. Factor scales of 15 and 11 items derived from rotation to simple structure were highly reliable, 0.95 and 0.93, respectively, and moderately correlated (r = 0.71). Average scores on both scales increased significantly with level of deprivation, and the Factor 1 scale was significantly higher than the Factor 2 scale at all levels. Factor 1 scale items reflected primarily intention and desire to smoke, and anticipation of pleasure from smoking. Factor 2 scale items were comprised primarily of anticipation of relief from negative affect and nicotine withdrawal, and urgent and overwhelming desire to smoke.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Behavior, Addictive / psychology*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*