Circulating tissue factor procoagulant activity and thrombin generation in patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of insulin and glucose

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov;92(11):4352-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-0933. Epub 2007 Sep 4.


Context: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a hypercoagulable state. Tissue factor (TF) is the principal initiator of blood coagulation.

Objective: Our objective was to examine the effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on the TF pathway of blood coagulation in T2DM.

Design: Three study protocols were used: 1) acute correction of hyperglycemia (with iv insulin) followed by 24 h of euglycemia, 2) 24 h of selective hyperinsulinemia, and 3) 24 h of combined hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia.

Setting: The study took place at a clinical research center.

Study participants: Participants included 18 T2DM patients and 22 nondiabetic controls.

Results: Basal TF-procoagulant activity (TF-PCA), monocyte TF mRNA, plasma coagulation factor VII (FVIIc), and thrombin-anti-thrombin complexes were higher in T2DM than in nondiabetic controls, indicating a chronic procoagulant state. Acutely normalizing hyperglycemia over 2-4 h resulted in a small ( approximately 7%) but significant decline in TF-PCA with no further decline over 24 h. Raising insulin levels alone raised TF-PCA by 30%, whereas raising insulin and glucose levels together increased TF-PCA (by 80%), thrombin-anti-thrombin complexes, and prothrombin fragment 1.2. Plasma FVIIa and FVIIc declined with increases in TF-PCA.

Conclusion: We conclude that the combination of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, common in poorly controlled patients with T2DM, contributes to a procoagulant state that may predispose these patients to acute cardiovascular events.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antithrombins / metabolism
  • Blood Coagulation / physiology*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Factor VII / metabolism
  • Factor VIII / metabolism
  • Female
  • Glucose / pharmacology*
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Insulin / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocytes / drug effects
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • Prothrombin / metabolism
  • Thrombin / biosynthesis*
  • Thrombin / metabolism
  • Thromboplastin / metabolism*


  • Antithrombins
  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • Factor VII
  • Prothrombin
  • Factor VIII
  • Thromboplastin
  • Thrombin
  • Glucose