The costs associated with adverse event procedures for an international HIV clinical trial determined by activity-based costing

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Dec 1;46(4):426-32. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e318156ee37.


Objective: To determine costs for adverse event (AE) procedures for a large HIV perinatal trial by analyzing actual resource consumption using activity-based costing (ABC) in an international research setting.

Methods: The AE system for an ongoing clinical trial in Uganda was evaluated using ABC techniques to determine costs from the perspective of the study. Resources were organized into cost categories (eg, personnel, patient care expenses, laboratory testing, equipment). Cost drivers were quantified, and unit cost per AE was calculated. A subset of time and motion studies was performed prospectively to observe clinic personnel time required for AE identification.

Results: In 18 months, there were 9028 AEs, with 970 (11%) reported as serious adverse events. Unit cost per AE was $101.97. Overall, AE-related costs represented 32% ($920,581 of $2,834,692) of all study expenses. Personnel ($79.30) and patient care ($11.96) contributed the greatest proportion of component costs. Reported AEs were predominantly nonserious (mild or moderate severity) and unrelated to study drug(s) delivery.

Conclusions: Intensive identification and management of AEs to conduct clinical trials ethically and protect human subjects require expenditure of substantial human and financial resources. Better understanding of these resource requirements should improve planning and funding of international HIV-related clinical trials.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Cost of Illness
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / economics*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / adverse effects*
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / economics
  • Male
  • Pregnancy
  • Uganda


  • HIV hyperimmune globulin
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous