A growing number of proteins devoid of signal peptides have been demonstrated to be released through the non-classical pathways independent of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Among them are two potent proangiogenic cytokines FGF1 and IL1alpha. Stress-induced transmembrane translocation of these proteins requires the assembly of copper-dependent multiprotein release complexes. It involves the interaction of exported proteins with the acidic phospholipids of the inner leaflet of the cell membrane and membrane destabilization. Not only stress, but also thrombin treatment and inhibition of Notch signaling stimulate the export of FGF1. Non-classical release of FGF1 and IL1alpha presents a promising target for treatment of cardiovascular, oncologic, and inflammatory disorders.
2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.