To determine whether antibodies to the 19-kDa fragment of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)) help to control blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum infection, we performed a rechallenge experiment of previously infected Aotus monkeys. Monkeys previously exposed to the FVO strain of P. falciparum that did or did not develop high antibody titers to MSP1(19) and malaria-naïve monkeys were challenged with erythrocytes infected with the same strain. Prepatent periods were prolonged in previously infected monkeys compared with malaria-naïve monkeys. Previously infected monkeys with preexisting anti-MSP1(19) antibodies showed low peak parasitemias that cleared spontaneously. Previously infected monkeys that had no or low levels of pre-existing anti-MSP1(19) antibodies also showed low peak parasitemias, but because of low hematocrits, all of these animals required treatment with mefloquine. All previously malaria-naïve animals were treated because of high parasitemias. The results of this study suggest that antibody to the 19-kDa carboxy-terminal fragment of MSP1 plays a role in preventing the development of anemia, an important complication often associated with malaria.