Quinines are known to mankind and have been in medical use against malaria for over 350 years. The revelation of quinines' activity against malaria in the 17th century brought a revolution to the medical world and had dramatic implications on the political arena of Europe at that time. The source of these materials is the bark of the Cinchona trees indigenous to remote mountain areas of Latin America. Great efforts were made in the search for the trees, and in growing them in other areas of the world. Today quinines are produced both synthetically and from the tree bark. Beside malaria, they are pivotal in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as Lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.