Ten_m3 regulates eye-specific patterning in the mammalian visual pathway and is required for binocular vision

PLoS Biol. 2007 Sep;5(9):e241. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0050241.


Binocular vision requires an exquisite matching of projections from each eye to form a cohesive representation of the visual world. Eye-specific inputs are anatomically segregated, but in register in the visual thalamus, and overlap within the binocular region of primary visual cortex. Here, we show that the transmembrane protein Ten_m3 regulates the alignment of ipsilateral and contralateral projections. It is expressed in a gradient in the developing visual pathway, which is consistently highest in regions that represent dorsal visual field. Mice that lack Ten_m3 show profound abnormalities in mapping of ipsilateral, but not contralateral, projections, and exhibit pronounced deficits when performing visually mediated behavioural tasks. It is likely that the functional deficits arise from the interocular mismatch, because they are reversed by acute monocular inactivation. We conclude that Ten_m3 plays a key regulatory role in the development of aligned binocular maps, which are required for normal vision.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / deficiency
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / physiology*
  • Vision, Binocular*
  • Visual Cortex
  • Visual Fields
  • Visual Pathways*


  • Membrane Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Tenm3 protein, mouse