Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus following allogeneic transplantation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and predisposes to severe complications. Thymosin alpha1 (Talpha1), a naturally occurring thymic peptide, is approved for treatment of some viral infections and as an immune adjuvant. Talpha1 successfully primed dendritic cells (DCs) for anti-microbial T helper type 1 resistance through Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 signaling. We sought to determine here whether Talpha1 could play a role in murine cytomegalovirus infection (MCMV). To this purpose, susceptible, resistant and TLR-deficient mice were infected with MCMV, treated with Talpha1 and assessed for protection in term of microbiological and immunological parameters. Talpha1 protected susceptible and resistant mice from MCMV infection. The anti-viral effect of Talpha1 occurred through the activation of plasmacytoid DCs via the TLR9/myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent viral recognition sensing, leading to the activation of IFN regulatory factor 7 and the promotion of the IFN-alpha/IFN-gamma-dependent effector pathway.