Coronary artery calcification is more prevalent in dialysis patients than in patients without kidney disease and this is associated with high serum phosphorus. In this study, we evaluate the effect of calcium carbonate or sevelamer treatments on the progression of calcification in 90 predialysis patients. Inclusion criteria were stable serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and a similar baseline total calcium score (TCS). These patients were not treated by phosphate binder, vitamin D, or statin. They were given low-phosphorus diets without or with daily calcium carbonate or sevelamer throughout the study that averaged 2 years. Baseline demographic or clinical characteristics along with biochemical parameters were not different among the three groups. The TCS significantly increased in patients on the low-phosphorus diet alone, to a lesser extent in calcium carbonate-treated patients, and not at all in sevelamer-treated patients. The progression of coronary calcification paralleled that of the calcium score. Our study shows that sevelamer treatment should not be restricted to dialysis patients; however, a larger study should be undertaken to confirm these results.