The diet composition can interfere directly in the energy homeostase. In the energy metabolism, the oxidation pathway and diet-induced thermogenesis are differentiated by diet macronutrients proportion. In this respect, the high-protein diet is the most thermogenic, compared to high-carbohydrate and high-lipid diets, while high-carbohydrate diet appears to increase the thermogenic effect more than high-lipid diet, but the studies are controversies. Towards energy intake, it can stimulate or inhibit the energy intake, according to the foods palatability, satiation and satiety degree, related to diet carbohydrate, protein and lipid content. A hierarchy has been observed for the satiating efficacies of the macronutrients protein, carbohydrate and fat, with protein as most satiating and fat as least satiating. In general, there are discrepancies between studies about the regulatory role of macronutrients in the components of energy expenditure and intake, due the methodological differences in the subjects, exposition time for diet, energy density, and total energy content. The present work seeks to analyze the more consistent scientific evidences toward the modulator role of diet composition on the diet induced thermogenesis and energy intake, for better understanding of obesity prevention and control by dietetic intervention.