Context: Intraneural perineurioma may be confused with other "onion bulb" Schwann cell entities (localized hypertrophic neuropathy, reactive/demyelinating processes, or inherited polyneuropathies of Charcot-Marie-Tooth/Dejerine Sottas) due to similar clinical, radiologic, and histologic features. Perineurial and Schwann cells can only be differentiated by ultrastructure and immunohistochemsitry.
Objective: To identify and summarize the clinicopathologic features of true cases of intraneural perineurioma from the English language literature.
Data sources: A systematic review was performed on definitive intraneural perineuriomas identified through Medline. Baylor College of Medicine-affiliated hospitals' anatomic pathology databases yielded 2 illustrative intraneural perineurioma cases.
Study selection: Intraneural perineurioma inclusion criteria consisted of characteristic histology and confirmation of perineurial cell lineage by either immunohistochemistry (epithelial membrane antigen positive, S100 protein negative) and/or ultrastructural analysis (thin cytoplasmic processes with an incomplete basal lamina, poorly formed tight junctions, and pinocytotic vesicles).
Data extraction: Clinicopathologic data were extracted from all identified articles, with subsequent statistical analysis of the following parameters: age, sex, race, tumor location, tumor size, duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, treatment modalities and outcomes measures, follow-up assessment for tumor recurrence and metastasis, clinical features (history of trauma, motor/sensory abnormalities, clinical/family history), and diagnostic workup (routine histology, immunohistochemistry, ultrastructural analysis, and molecular/cytogenetic characteristics).
Conclusions: Intraneural perineurioma is a neoplastic proliferation of perineurial cells with unique immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural features, and it is distinct from other onion bulb Schwann cell-derived entities. Despite harboring molecular abnormalities of the long arm of chromosome 22, intraneural perineurioma has not been associated with neurofibromatosis. Intraneural perineurioma is a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor that does not recur or metastasize.