Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA)

Reprod Toxicol. 2007 Aug-Sep;24(2):139-77. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.07.010. Epub 2007 Jul 31.


The plastic monomer and plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. BPA is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used in many consumer products. Here, we have outlined studies that address the levels of BPA in human tissues and fluids. We have reviewed the few epidemiological studies available that explore biological markers of BPA exposure and human health outcomes. We have examined several studies of levels of BPA released from consumer products as well as the levels measured in wastewater, drinking water, air and dust. Lastly, we have reviewed acute metabolic studies and the information available about BPA metabolism in animal models. The reported levels of BPA in human fluids are higher than the BPA concentrations reported to stimulate molecular endpoints in vitro and appear to be within an order of magnitude of the levels needed to induce effects in animal models.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Environmental Exposure / analysis*
  • Food Contamination / analysis
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / pharmacokinetics
  • Phenols / poisoning*
  • Plasticizers / analysis
  • Plasticizers / pharmacokinetics
  • Plasticizers / poisoning
  • Tissue Distribution


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Phenols
  • Plasticizers
  • bisphenol A