Aims: The objective of this study was to determine whether baseline albuminuria predicts coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression in subjects with type 1 diabetes and whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE-I) or angiotensin II type I receptor blocker (ARB) treatment is associated with lower odds of CAC progression.
Methods: In 2000-2002, the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study enrolled 652 subjects with type 1 diabetes who were between 19 and 56 years old and had no known history of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this analysis, CAC progression over 2.5+/-0.4 years was evaluated in 478 subjects (age=37+/-9 years; male=45%; diabetes duration=23+/-9 years) at a follow-up visit. Albuminuria was defined by American Diabetes Association criteria, and microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were combined for the analysis. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between baseline categorical presence of albuminuria and CAC progression.
Results: At baseline, of the 478 subjects, 157 (33%) were on ACE-I/ARB treatment and 83 (17%) had albuminuria, with 114 (24%) having CAC progression at follow-up. In backward logistic regression, presence of albuminuria at baseline predicted progression of CAC among subjects not treated with ACE-I/ARB [odds ratio=4.06; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.45-11.35; P=.008]. Among the subjects with albuminuria, the odds of progression was 62% lower (95% CI=88% decrease to 23% increase; P=.106) in those treated with ACE-I/ARB.
Conclusions: Albuminuria is a significant independent risk factor for CAC progression in young type 1 diabetes patients asymptomatic for CAD, and ACE-I/ARB treatment is associated with substantially lower odds of CAC progression.