Objective: To determine the effect of methylglyoxal (MG) on cytokine production by, and apoptosis of, neutrophils from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients.
Design and methods: The levels of plasma MG, cytokines released by isolated neutrophils and the apoptotic status of neutrophils were determined.
Results: The higher level of plasma MG in T2DM patients was correlated positively with glycated hemoglobin levels, fasting plasma glucose levels and urine albumin/creatinine ratios. The basal levels of cytokines released from neutrophils were markedly higher in patients. MG treatment of the neutrophils isolated from diabetic patients either did not alter, or decreased, the production of cytokines. In contrast, MG induced the release of cytokines from neutrophils of non-diabetics. Moreover, the neutrophils from T2DM patients showed a greater proclivity for apoptosis, which was further increased by in vitro MG treatment.
Conclusion: MG stimulated neutrophils to release more cytokines, which might play a role in the development of infection in T2DM.