The objectives of the present study were to compare Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) colonization and serologic status on Mh vaccinated and non-vaccinated sows and to assess the effect of sow vaccination on colonization and serologic status of their piglets at weaning as well as presence of enzootic pneumonia (EP) lung lesions at slaughter. Fifty sows (25 vaccinated and 25 unvaccinated) as well as five of their piglets were included in the study. Blood samples and nasal swabs from sows at 7 weeks pre-farrowing and 1 week post-farrowing and from piglets at 3-4 weeks of age were taken. Nasal swabs and sera were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) to detect Mh DNA and by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to detect antibodies to the pathogen, respectively. Finally, at 23 weeks of age, pigs were sent to the slaughter where the extension of EP-compatible gross lesions was assessed. Vaccination with two doses of Mh vaccine resulted in a significantly higher (p<0.05) percentage of seropositive sows than in the non-vaccinated group at 1 week post-farrowing. On the contrary, no statistical significant differences were found in the number of nasal nPCR positive sows among different treatments (p>0.05). At 3-4 weeks of age, a significantly higher percentage (p<0.001) of seropositive piglets came from vaccinated than from non-vaccinated sows. Although the number of Mh infected piglets coming from non-vaccinated sows was higher than the one from vaccinated sows, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Overall, piglets from vaccinated sows had a significant lower (p<0.05) mean of EP-compatible lung lesions (1.83+/-2.8) than piglets from non-vaccinated sows (3.02+/-3.6). Under the conditions described in this study, sow vaccination did not affect sow or piglet colonization but increased the percentage of seropositive sows and piglets at weaning and reduced significantly the mean EP-compatible lung lesion scoring at slaughter.