Blood-borne infections are transmitted by way of direct blood contact from one individual to another from injured skin or a mucous membrane. Blood-borne infections can also be transmitted through blood doping and drug abuse and through sexual contact. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBV infection include travel to regions with endemic hepatitis. Prevention of blood-borne pathogens in the student-athlete should focus on traditional transmission routes and off-the-field behavior because experts believe that field transmission of blood-borne pathogens is minimal. Worldwide, HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV are the most common pathogens encountered. This article focuses on HBV and HCV as being the most prevalent in athletics.