Pattern stability and error correction during in-phase and antiphase four-ball juggling

J Mot Behav. 2007 Sep;39(5):433-46. doi: 10.3200/JMBR.39.5.433-448.


The authors studied pattern stability and error correction during in-phase and antiphase 4-ball fountain juggling. To obtain ball trajectories, they made and digitized high-speed film recordings of 4 highly skilled participants juggling at 3 different heights (and thus different frequencies). From those ball trajectories, the authors determined and analyzed critical events (i.e., toss, zenith, catch, and toss onset) in terms of variability of point estimates of relative phase and temporal correlations. Contrary to common findings on basic instances of rhythmic interlimb coordination, in-phase and antiphase patterns were equally variable (i.e., stable). Consistent with previous findings, however, pattern stability decreased with increasing frequency. In contrast to previous results for 3-ball cascade juggling, negative lag-one correlations for catch-catch intervals were absent, but the authors obtained evidence for error corrections between catches and toss onsets. That finding may have reflected participants' high skill level, which yielded smaller errors that allowed for corrections later in the hand cycle.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Algorithms
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Female
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Motor Skills / physiology*
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology*