Generation of antitumor active neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan in apple vinegar fermentation

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Sep;71(9):2124-9. doi: 10.1271/bbb.60670. Epub 2007 Sep 7.


The physiologically active substances in apple vinegar have not yet been chemically characterized. We studied the biological functions of apple vinegar produced from crushed apples, and found that the constituent neutral medium-sized alpha-glycan (NMalphaG) acts as an antitumor agent against experimental mouse tumors. NMalphaG is a homoglycan composed of glucose having a molecular weight of about 10,000 and a branched structure bearing alpha (1-4,6) linkages. In this study, we clarified the origin of NMalphaG in apple vinegar by examination of its content in alcohol and acetic acid fermentation products sequentially. We found that NMalphaG appeared in acetic acid fermentation, but not in alcohol fermentation. Furthermore we investigated NMalphaG origin using acetic acid fermentation from alcohol fortifiied apple without alcohol fermentation and from raw material with varying amounts of pomace. The results indicate that NMalphaG originated in the apple fruit body and that its production requires both fermentation processes.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / chemistry
  • Acetic Acid / metabolism*
  • Acetic Acid / toxicity
  • Alcohols / metabolism
  • Antineoplastic Agents / metabolism*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity
  • Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose
  • Chromatography, Gel
  • Fermentation*
  • Ions / chemistry
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Malus / metabolism*
  • Molecular Weight
  • Polysaccharides / biosynthesis*


  • Alcohols
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Ions
  • Polysaccharides
  • Acetic Acid