Picropodophyllin induces downregulation of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor: potential mechanistic involvement of Mdm2 and beta-arrestin1

Oncogene. 2008 Mar 6;27(11):1629-38. doi: 10.1038/sj.onc.1210797. Epub 2007 Sep 10.


The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is crucial for growth and survival of malignant cells. Experience in targeting IGF-1R in cancer models has shown that strategies promoting downregulation of the receptor are much more efficient in inducing apoptosis than those inhibiting the IGF-1R activity. Recently, we found that the cyclolignan picropodophyllin (PPP) inhibits phosphorylation of IGF-1R and activation of downstream signaling without interfering with the highly homologous insulin receptor (IR). Furthermore, PPP treatment caused strong regression of tumor grafts and prolonged survival of animals with systemic tumor disease. Here we demonstrate that PPP also downregulates the IGF-1R, whereas the IR and several other receptors were not affected. PPP-induced IGF-1R downregulation required expression of the MDM2 E3 ligase, which recently was found to ubiquitinate and cause degradation of the IGF-1R. In addition knockdown of beta-arrestin1, the adaptor molecule known to bridges MDM2 and IGF-1R, prevented downregulation of the receptor and significantly decreased PPP-induced cell death. All together these data suggest that PPP downregulates IGF-1R by interfering with the action of beta-arrestin1/MDM2 as well as the achieved receptor downregulation contributes to the apoptotic effect of PPP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aorta / metabolism
  • Aorta / pathology
  • Apoptosis
  • Arrestins / genetics
  • Arrestins / metabolism*
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Down-Regulation*
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Podophyllotoxin / analogs & derivatives*
  • Podophyllotoxin / pharmacology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / genetics
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2 / metabolism*
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism*
  • Receptor, Insulin / metabolism
  • Swine
  • Ubiquitin / metabolism
  • beta-Arrestins


  • Arrestins
  • Ubiquitin
  • beta-Arrestins
  • picropodophyllin
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • MDM2 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • Receptor, IGF Type 1
  • Receptor, Insulin
  • Podophyllotoxin