Optimization of parameters for semiempirical methods V: modification of NDDO approximations and application to 70 elements

J Mol Model. 2007 Dec;13(12):1173-213. doi: 10.1007/s00894-007-0233-4. Epub 2007 Sep 9.


Several modifications that have been made to the NDDO core-core interaction term and to the method of parameter optimization are described. These changes have resulted in a more complete parameter optimization, called PM6, which has, in turn, allowed 70 elements to be parameterized. The average unsigned error (AUE) between calculated and reference heats of formation for 4,492 species was 8.0 kcal mol(-1). For the subset of 1,373 compounds involving only the elements H, C, N, O, F, P, S, Cl, and Br, the PM6 AUE was 4.4 kcal mol(-1). The equivalent AUE for other methods were: RM1: 5.0, B3LYP 6-31G*: 5.2, PM5: 5.7, PM3: 6.3, HF 6-31G*: 7.4, and AM1: 10.0 kcal mol(-1). Several long-standing faults in AM1 and PM3 have been corrected and significant improvements have been made in the prediction of geometries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Dimerization
  • Electrons
  • Elements*
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Ions / chemistry
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Conformation
  • Pyrimidines / chemistry
  • Software Design*
  • Water / chemistry


  • Elements
  • Ions
  • Pyrimidines
  • Water
  • pyrimidine