The effect of toll-like receptors and toll-like receptor genetics in human disease

Annu Rev Med. 2008;59:343-59. doi: 10.1146/


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) enable innate immune recognition of endogenous and exogenous prototypic ligands. They also orchestrate innate and adaptive immune response to infection, inflammation, and tissue injury. Given their significance in the immune response, it is not surprising that genetic variations of TLRs can affect their function and by extension affect the response of the organism to environmental stimuli. The genetics of TLRs provides important insights in gene-environment interactions in health and disease, and it may enable scientists to assess patients' susceptibility to diseases or predict their response to treatments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Susceptibility / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Toll-Like Receptors / physiology*


  • Toll-Like Receptors