The Relationship of Dietary Carotenoid and Vitamin A, E, and C Intake With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Case-Control Study: AREDS Report No. 22

Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Sep;125(9):1225-32. doi: 10.1001/archopht.125.9.1225.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the relationship of dietary carotenoids, vitamin A, alpha-tocopherol, and vitamin C with prevalent age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS).

Methods: Demographic, lifestyle, and medical characteristics were ascertained on 4519 AREDS participants aged 60 to 80 years at enrollment. Stereoscopic color fundus photographs were used to categorize participants into 4 AMD severity groups and a control group (participants with < 15 small drusen). Nutrient intake was estimated from a self-administered semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire at enrollment. Intake values were energy adjusted and classified by quintiles. The relationship between diet and AMD status was assessed using logistic regression analyses.

Results: Dietary lutein/zeaxanthin intake was inversely associated with neovascular AMD (odds ratio [OR], 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.93), geographic atrophy (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86), and large or extensive intermediate drusen (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.96), comparing the highest vs lowest quintiles of intake, after adjustment for total energy intake and nonnutrient-based covariates. Other nutrients were not independently related to AMD.

Conclusion: Higher dietary intake of lutein/zeaxanthin was independently associated with decreased likelihood of having neovascular AMD, geographic atrophy, and large or extensive intermediate drusen.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Ascorbic Acid / administration & dosage*
  • Carotenoids / administration & dosage*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / epidemiology
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / prevention & control
  • Diet*
  • Eating
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lutein / administration & dosage
  • Macular Degeneration / epidemiology*
  • Macular Degeneration / prevention & control
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Regression Analysis
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vitamin A / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin E / administration & dosage*
  • Xanthophylls / administration & dosage
  • Zeaxanthins

Substances

  • Xanthophylls
  • Zeaxanthins
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin E
  • Carotenoids
  • Ascorbic Acid
  • Lutein