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, 2 (9), e892

Evidence for Paternal Leakage in Hybrid Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada Spp.)

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Evidence for Paternal Leakage in Hybrid Periodical Cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada Spp.)

Kathryn M Fontaine et al. PLoS One.

Abstract

Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1. Example of -decim×-cassini hybrid PCR product in 2% agarose gel stained with Sybrsafe.
First column: primer specific to maternal mtDNA; Lanes 1-5: -decim F×-cassini M; Lane 6: -decim M×-cassini F; Lane 7: Maternal species DNA; Lane 8: 100 bp Ladder; Lane 9: Paternal species DNA; Lane 10: H20 negative control (No DNA); Second column: primer specific to paternal mtDNA. Lanes 1-5: -decim F×-cassini M; Lane 6: -decim M×-cassini F; Lane 7: Paternal species DNA; Lane 8: Ladder; Lane 9: Maternal species DNA; Lane 10: H20 negative control (No DNA). Lanes 4-6 show paternal leakage.
Figure 2
Figure 2. Example of -decim×–decula hybrid PCR product in 2% agarose gel stained with Sybrsafe.
First column: primer specific to maternal mtDNA; Lanes 1-5: -decim F×-decula M; Lane 6: -decim M×-decula F; Lane 7: Maternal species DNA; Lane 8: Ladder; Lane 9: Paternal species DNA; Lane 10: H20 negative control (No DNA); Second column: primer specific to paternal mtDNA. Lanes 1-5: -decim F×-decula M; Lane 6: -decim M×-decula F; Lane 7: Paternal species DNA; Lane 8: Ladder; Lane 9: Maternal species DNA; Lane 10: H20 negative control (No DNA). Lanes 4-6 show paternal leakage.
Figure 3
Figure 3. Research organisms and experimental set up.
(A) Magicicada septendecim female (Brood X), (B) Magicicada cassini female (Brood X), (C) Magicicada septendecula male (Brood IX). Photographs in Figs. 3– 7 by C. Simon.
Figure 4
Figure 4. Courtship and mating in periodical cicadas.
(A) A pair of M. septendecim courting inside a screen mesh cage, (B) A pair of M. septendecim mating (Brood IX), (C) A M. septendecim female/M. cassini male mating pair.
Figure 5
Figure 5. M. cassini female ovipositing; note additional eggnest scars on twig.
Figure 6
Figure 6. (A) Three Magicicada eggs removed from an eggnest, (B) A first instar Magicicada nymph.
Figure 7
Figure 7. K. Fontaine inspecting a mating cage for mating pairs.
Figure 8
Figure 8. Dilution test with different volume ratios of experimentally mixed -decim:-cassini DNA in a 2% agarose gel stained with Sybrsafe.
First column: Amplification with -decim-specific primers 2287/2712; Second column: Amplification with -cassini-specific primers 2287/2712. The less abundant mtDNA type was revealed using species-specific primers. Ladder is a 100 bp ladder with 1000 bp band on left.
Figure 9
Figure 9. Dilution test with different volume ratios of experimentally mixed -decim:-decula in a 2% agarose gel stained with Sybrsafe.
First column: Amplification with -decim-specific primers 2607/2787; Second column: Amplification with -decula-specific primers 2607/2787. The less abundant mtDNA type was revealed using species-specific primers. Ladder is a 100 bp ladder with 1000 bp band on left.

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