Aims: To assess the effectiveness and safety of administering prophylactic antibiotics in reducing the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) after urodynamic studies (UDS).
Methods: The CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHI, LILIACS (up to January 2007), TRIP database, The National Library for Health, the citation lists of review articles, conference abstracts (2004-2006) and hand search of reference lists to identify relevant reviews and articles. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics with placebo or nothing in reducing bacteriologically proven UTI after invasive cystometry were included. Two reviewers extracted data independently and the results were expressed as peto odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals using fixed effects model in ReV Man 4.2.8 software.
Results: Eight RCTs with 995 patients were included. The majority of the patients were female. The studies were methodologically poor. The primary outcome in all but one study was newly acquired infection defined as colony count >10(5)/ml in urine tested post UDS. On meta-analysis, there was 40% reduction in the risk of significant bacteriuria with administration of prophylactic antibiotics (Peto odds ratio 0.39; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.61). The antibiotics used differed in dose, type and duration. One minor skin rash and one major anaphylactic reaction requiring steroid injection therapy was reported in the treatment group. One would need to give prophylactic antibiotics to 13 individuals undergoing UDS to prevent one significant bacteriuria of unknown clinical significance.
Conclusion: The use of prophylactic antibiotics in urodynamics reduces the risk of significant bacteriuria.
(c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.