JB-1 and GC2, which were equated with Bacillus sp. and Aeromonas sobria respectively, were recovered from the digestive tract of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and ghost carp, Cyprinus sp. respectively, and demonstrated effectiveness as probiotics for the control of infections caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, Lactococcus garvieae, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii and Yersinia ruckeri. When administered to rainbow trout (average weight = 12 g) for 14 days in feed dosed at 2 x 10(8) cells g(-1) of feed, JB-1 led to a reduction in mortalities to 0-13% after challenge with a range of bacterial pathogens compared to 80-100% mortalities of the controls. Similarly, use of GC2 reduced mortalities to 0-16% following the challenge compared to 80-100% mortalities of the controls. The mode of action reflected nutrition, production of inhibitory substances and stimulation of the innate immune responses. Specifically, JB-1 and especially GC2 were positive for siderophore and chitinase production, and increased lysozyme, phagocytic and respiratory burst activity.