Factors associated with obesity in Indonesian adolescents

Int J Pediatr Obes. 2008;3(1):58-64. doi: 10.1080/17477160701520132.


OBJECTIVE. To investigate adolescent eating, activity, and behavioral patterns, and attitudes and their associations with obesity in selected communities in Indonesia. DESIGN. A cross-sectional questionnaire and physical measurement-based study in three communities of varying modernization levels in Indonesia (Yogyakarta, Kuta, and Jakarta). Subjects. 1758 middle school students (aged 12-15 years) recruited at six different schools: one public and one private school in each of the three target communities. MEASUREMENTS. The questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, estimated household income); fast food eating habits (frequency, types of food/restaurant, general beliefs about fast foods); television, computer, and Play Station usage; physical activity (hrs/wk of participation in physical activity, transportation means for attending school); and eating habits (frequency of consuming selected foods and beverages). Student's height and weights were obtained, body mass index (BMI: weight [kg]/height [m(2)]) was calculated, and obesity was defined as ≥95%, using the BMI-for-age cut-offs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) charts. RESULTS. Chi-square analysis revealed associations between obesity and community setting, family income, use of a computer or Play Station, type of transportation to school, and beliefs about fast foods (P<0.01). According to the logistic regression analysis, adolescents from families with incomes over Rp 2 mil were three times as likely to be obese (95% CI 1.9, 4.9) and boys were 2.6 times more likely to be obese (95% CI 1.5, 4.5). CONCLUSION. Greater likelihood of obesity among Indonesian adolescents who spend greater amounts of time using a computer or Play Station suggests that such sedentary activities may be replacing physical activity, promoting an energy imbalance, and subsequently, an increased risk for obesity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior / ethnology
  • Age Factors
  • Asians / statistics & numerical data*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Child Behavior / ethnology
  • Computers
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Eating / ethnology
  • Fast Foods
  • Feeding Behavior / ethnology
  • Female
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Life Style / ethnology*
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Motor Activity
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / ethnology*
  • Obesity / psychology
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Sedentary Behavior / ethnology
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Video Games