There are several types of viral pathogens that cause disease in mosquitoes with most belonging to 4 major groups. The most common viruses of mosquitoes are the baculoviruses (NPVs) (Baculoviridae: Nucleopolyhedrovirus) and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPVs) (Reoviridae: Cypovirus). The other major types of viruses in mosquitoes are represented by the densoviruses (DNVs) (Parvoviridae: Brevidensovirus) and the iridoviruses (MIVs) (Iridoviridae: Chloriridovirus). Baculoviruses, densoviruses and iridoviruses are DNA viruses while cypoviruses are the main RNA viruses in mosquitoes. This chapter presents an overview of the recent advancements in the study of mosquito pathogenic viruses and discusses how this new understanding of virus-mosquito interactions can be used to develop novel research and control strategies.