Dendritic-cell immunotherapy: from ex vivo loading to in vivo targeting

Nat Rev Immunol. 2007 Oct;7(10):790-802. doi: 10.1038/nri2173.


The realization that dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate innate and adaptive immune responses has stimulated research on harnessing DCs to create more effective vaccines. Early clinical trials exploring autologous DCs that were loaded with antigens ex vivo to induce T-cell responses have provided proof of principle. Here, we discuss how direct targeting of antigens to DC surface receptors in vivo might replace laborious and expensive ex vivo culturing, and facilitate large-scale application of DC-based vaccination therapies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology
  • Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Cross-Priming
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology*
  • Dendritic Cells / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy / methods*
  • Neoplasms / therapy
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Vaccination / methods
  • Vaccines


  • Antigens, Neoplasm
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Vaccines