Dietary advanced lipid oxidation endproducts are risk factors to human health

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2007 Sep;51(9):1094-101. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.200600303.


Lipid oxidation in foods is one of the major degradative processes responsible for losses in food quality. The oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids results in significant generation of dietary advanced lipid oxidation endproducts (ALEs) which are in part cytotoxic and genotoxic compounds. The gastrointestinal tract is constantly exposed to dietary oxidized food compounds, after digestion a part of them are absorbed into the lymph or directly into the blood stream. After ingestion of oxidized fats animals and human have been shown to excrete in urine increase amounts of malondialdehyde but also lipophilic carbonyl compounds. Oxidized cholesterol in the diet was found to be a source of oxidized lipoproteins in human serum. Some of the dietary ALEs, which are absorbed from the gut to the circulatory system, seems to act as injurious chemicals that activate an inflammatory response which affects not only circulatory system but also organs such as liver, kidney, lung, and the gut itself. We believe that repeated consumption of oxidized fat in the diet poses a chronic threat to human health. High concentration of dietary antioxidants could prevent lipid oxidation and ALEs generation not only in foods but also in stomach condition and thereby potentially decrease absorption of ALEs from the gut. This could explains the health benefit of diets containing large amounts of dietary antioxidants such those present in fruits and vegetables, or products such as red-wine or tea consuming during the meal.

Publication types

  • Comment
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Diet*
  • Food
  • Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Intestinal Absorption
  • Lipid Peroxidation
  • Lipid Peroxides / pharmacokinetics
  • Risk Factors


  • Antioxidants
  • Lipid Peroxides