The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) was examined in individuals with coeliac disease (CD). The Swedish national inpatient register was used to identify 14 207 individuals with a diagnosis of CD (1964-2003). These individuals were matched for age, sex, calendar year and county with 69 048 reference individuals. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for subsequent thromboembolism in individuals with more than 1 year of follow-up and no prior VTE. CD was associated with an increased risk of subsequent VTE (HR = 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.24). The risk increase was restricted to individuals with CD diagnosed in adulthood. Risk estimates were not affected by the presence of diabetes mellitus or concomitant surgery. Compared with inpatients as reference individuals, CD individuals remained at increased risk of subsequent VTE (adjusted HR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.06-1.52). In conclusion, this study found a statistically significantly positive association between CD and VTE. This modest association might be explained by a combination of surveillance bias and chronic inflammation.