Expression of perforin and granzymes in vivo: potential diagnostic markers for activated cytotoxic cells

Immunol Today. 1991 Nov;12(11):415-9. doi: 10.1016/0167-5699(91)90145-J.


Perforin and granzymes are considered to be instrumental in cell-mediated cytolysis by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. Here, Gillian Griffiths and Christoph Mueller describe the expression of perforin and granzymes, emphasizing studies in vivo, and discuss the possibility that these proteins are useful diagnostic markers for immune responses involving cytolytic cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmune Diseases / diagnosis
  • Biomarkers
  • Cytotoxicity, Immunologic
  • Graft Rejection / immunology
  • Humans
  • Lymphocyte Activation*
  • Membrane Glycoproteins*
  • Membrane Proteins / immunology*
  • Perforin
  • Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins
  • Serine Endopeptidases / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic*
  • Transplantation Immunology
  • Virus Diseases / diagnosis


  • Biomarkers
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins
  • Perforin
  • Serine Endopeptidases