The arachidonic acid metabolizing CYP enzymes with prominent roles in vascular regulation are epoxygenases of the two gene family which generate epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. Carriers of CYP2C9 mutant alleles exhibit a diminished CYP2C9 metabolic capacity leading to decreased endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHF) synthesis and an increased risk for atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the polymorphisms of CYP2C9/19 are related with atherosclerosis. We examined 108 patients having angioraphically > or =70 coronary artery narrowing and 90 healthy controls. CYPC2C9/19*2 and CYP2C9/19*3 alleles were investigated in both patients and controls by a real time PCR instrument. There was no significant difference in the distribution of the CYP2C9*2/*3 alleles between cases and the controls. We found that smoker patients having CYP2C9*2 heterozygote genotype have 3.7-fold risk of developing atherosclerosis. CYP2C19*3 heterozygote alleles are more frequent in patients than in controls (10.2%, 5.6% respectively) and it is related with a three-fold risk of atherosclerosis (odds ratio (OR) = 3.75, confidence interval (CI) = 0.75-18.65). It becomes clear that cigarette smoking can cause almost all major diseases prevalent today, such as cancer or heart disease. This inter-subject variability in cigarette-induced pathologies is partly mediated by genetic variants of genes that may participate in detoxification processes, e.g., cytochrome P450 (CYP), cellular susceptibility to toxins, such as p53, or disease development such as atherosclerosis.