Early in the development of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccines severe disease occurred in children after receipt of formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine. Continuing efforts to develop an appropriately attenuated and immunogenic live RSV vaccine have given opportunities to assure that live vaccines are safe through surveillance of children after vaccination. In the present study, the rate of RSV-associated upper respiratory tract illness in 388 children was lower in RSV vaccinated children than in controls (14% versus 20% in a 6-24 month old group and 16% versus 25% in infants). Additionally, there was no evidence that vaccination predisposed to more severe lower respiratory tract illness. Thus infection with a series of live attenuated RSV vaccines did not result in enhanced disease upon infection with wild type RSV. The impact of RSV during this surveillance will inform the design of future efficacy studies with RSV vaccines.