In the present experiment we use a rat model of traumatic brain injury to evaluate the ability of low-pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) to improve behavioral and neurobiological outcomes. The study employed an adaptation of the focal cortical contusion model. 64 Male Long-Evans rats received unilateral cortical contusion and were tested in the Morris Water Task (MWT) 31-33 days post injury. Rats were divided into three groups: an untreated control group (N=22), an HBOT treatment group (N=19) and a sham-treated normobaric air group (N=23). The HBOT group received 80 bid, 7 days/week 1.5 ATA/90-min HBOTs and the sham-treated normobaric air group the identical schedule of air treatments using a sham hyperbaric pressurization. All rats were subsequently retested in the MWT. After testing all rats were euthanized. Blood vessel density was measured bilaterally in hippocampus using a diaminobenzadine stain and was correlated with MWT performance. HBOT caused an increase in vascular density in the injured hippocampus (p<0.001) and an associated improvement in spatial learning (p<0.001) compared to the control groups. The increased vascular density and improved MWT in the HBOT group were highly correlated (p<0.001). In conclusion, a 40-day series of 80 low-pressure HBOTs caused an increase in contused hippocampus vascular density and an associated improvement in cognitive function. These findings reaffirm the clinical experience of HBOT-treated patients with chronic traumatic brain injury.