Objective: The purpose of this study was (a) to describe HRCT findings for pulmonary tuberculosis before and after treatment, and (b) to evaluate the possible use of HRCT to assess disease activity.
Patients and methods: We prospectively studied 52 patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis that was proven bacteriologically. HRCT scans were performed before and after treatment.
Results: Micronodules, nodules, tree-in-bud appearance, consolidation, and cavities were the most common HRCT findings seen in active pulmonary tuberculosis. The disappearance of tree-in-bud appearance, pleural effusion and the presence of fibrotic change appear to be indications of the effectiveness of treatment. HRCT can differentiate old fibrotic lesions from newly active tuberculous lesions.
Conclusions: HRCT may be helpful in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and may be useful in the assessment of the efficacy of anti-tuberculous treatment.