Differential effects of left ventricular pacing sites in an acute canine model of contraction dyssynchrony

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Nov;293(5):H3046-55. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00728.2007. Epub 2007 Sep 14.


The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of left ventricular (LV) pacing sites (apex vs. free wall) on radial synchrony and global LV performance in a canine model of contraction dyssynchrony. Ultrasound tissue Doppler imaging and hemodynamic (LV pressure-volume) data were collected in seven anesthetized, opened-chest dogs. Right atrial (RA) pacing served as the control, and contraction dyssynchrony was created by simultaneous RA and right ventricular (RV) pacing to induce a left bundle-branch block-like contraction pattern. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was implemented by adding simultaneous LV pacing to the RV pacing mode at either the LV apex (CRTa) or free wall (CRTf). A new index of synchrony was developed via pair-wise cross-correlation analysis of tissue Doppler radial strain from six midmyocardial cross-sectional regions, with a value of 15 indicating perfect synchrony. Compared with RA pacing, RV pacing significantly decreased radial synchrony (11.1 +/- 0.8 vs. 4.8 +/- 1.2, P < 0.01) and global LV performance (cardiac output: 2.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.1 l/min and stroke work: 137 +/- 22 vs. 60 +/- 14 mJ, P < 0.05). Although both CRTa and CRTf significantly improved radial synchrony, only CRTa markedly improved global function (cardiac output: 2.1 +/- 0.2 l/min and stroke work: 113 +/- 13 mJ, P < 0.01 vs. RV pacing). Furthermore, CRTa decreased LV end-systolic volume compared with RV pacing without any change in LV end-systolic pressure, indicating an augmented global LV contractile state. Thus, LV apical pacing appears to be a superior pacing site in the context of CRT. The dissociation between changes in synchrony and global LV performance with CRTf suggests that regional analysis from a single plane may not be sufficient to adequately characterize contraction synchrony.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Animals
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / diagnosis
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / physiopathology*
  • Arrhythmias, Cardiac / prevention & control*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / methods*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dogs
  • Elasticity
  • Heart Rate
  • Heart Ventricles / physiopathology*
  • Myocardial Contraction*
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / diagnosis
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / physiopathology*
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left / prevention & control*