Comparative bioavailability of mineral-enriched gluconates and yeast in rat liver after depletion-repletion feeding

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007 Aug;118(2):104-10. doi: 10.1007/s12011-007-0004-1.


There are many forms of mineral supplements currently available. Among these mineral-enriched gluconates and yeast are considered two of the more biologically available supplements. The purpose of this study was to use zinc (Zn)- or copper (Cu)-deficient rats to determine whether the organically bound mineral in yeast or the salt gluconate form was more bioavailable, i.e., is absorbed and found in a greater concentration in liver. It was demonstrated that Zn-enriched yeast was 3.7 times more bioavailable than the Zn gluconate and that Cu-enriched yeast was 1.4 times more bioavailable than the Cu gluconate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Availability
  • Copper* / chemistry
  • Copper* / deficiency
  • Copper* / pharmacokinetics
  • Diet*
  • Fasting
  • Gluconates* / chemistry
  • Gluconates* / pharmacokinetics
  • Humans
  • Liver / chemistry*
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Yeast, Dried / pharmacokinetics*
  • Zinc* / chemistry
  • Zinc* / deficiency
  • Zinc* / pharmacokinetics


  • Gluconates
  • Copper
  • Zinc