We examined whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved cycling time-trial performance and changed the relationship between limit work (W (lim)) and limit time (T (lim)), which is described by the parameters critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC). Eighteen male cyclists were assigned to either a pressure-threshold IMT or sham hypoxic-training placebo (PLC) group. Prior to and following a 6 week intervention subjects completed a 25-km cycling time-trial and three constant-power tests to establish the W (lim)-T (lim) relationship. Constant-power tests were prescribed to elicit exercise intolerance within 3-10 (Ex1), 10-20 (Ex2), and 20-30 (Ex3) min. Maximal inspiratory mouth pressure increased by (mean +/- SD) 17.1 +/- 12.2% following IMT (P < 0.01) and was accompanied by a 2.66 +/- 2.51% improvement in 25-km time-trial performance (P < 0.05); there were no changes following PLC. Constant-power cycling endurance was unchanged following PLC, as was CP (pre vs. post: 249 +/- 32 vs. 250 +/- 32 W) and AWC (30.7 +/- 12.7 vs. 30.1 +/- 12.5 kJ). Following IMT Ex1 and Ex3 cycling endurance improved by 18.3 +/- 15.1 and 15.3 +/- 19.1% (P < 0.05), respectively, CP was unchanged (264 +/- 62 vs. 263 +/- 61 W), but AWC increased from 24.8 +/- 5.6 to 29.0 +/- 8.4 kJ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data provide novel evidence that improvements in constant-power and cycling time-trial performance following IMT in cyclists may be explained, in part, by an increase in AWC.