Although several studies report an association between hyperuricemia and coronary artery disease, little is known about the effect of hyperuricemia and gout on the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data on 283 incident clinical cases of PAD during a randomized controlled trial of multiple cardiovascular risk factor intervention are evaluated. The serum uric acid levels among these individuals are compared with those of individuals who did not develop PAD during the study period. Multivariate logistic regression analyses measure the risk of developing PAD associated with higher levels of serum uric acid after adjusting for the effect of traditional vascular risk factors. Age and smoking are independently associated with development of PAD, with odds ratios of 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.09) and 3.83 (95% CI, 2.49-5.91) per year, respectively. Hyperuricemia (serum uric acid level, >7.0 mg/dL) is an independent risk factor, with an odds ratio of 1.23, but the confidence interval of the estimate is wide (95% CI, 0.98-1.54). In this multivariate model, a history of gout was associated with an odds ratio of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.07-1.66). Serum uric acid level is independently associated with a higher (but statistically nonsignificant) risk of PAD. A history of gouty arthritis is an independent and statistically significant predictor of incidence of PAD even after adjustment for the effect of underlying hyperuricemia.