Effectiveness of oxycodone, ibuprofen, or the combination in the initial management of orthopedic injury-related pain in children

Pediatr Emerg Care. 2007 Sep;23(9):627-33. doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e31814a6a39.


Objective: Orthopedic injuries comprise a majority of the indications for analgesia in the emergency department. Oxycodone and ibuprofen have demonstrated efficacy for this indication, but no studies have compared these drugs in children. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of oxycodone, ibuprofen, or their combination for the management of orthopedic injury-related pain in children.

Methods: This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, clinical trial compared the effectiveness of oxycodone, ibuprofen, and the combination in children (age, 6-18 years), with pain from a suspected orthopedic injury. Subjects were block-randomized to receive 1 of the 3 treatment regimens. Pain was assessed with the Faces Pain Scale (FPS) and Visual Analog Scale at baseline, postimmobilization, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes postmedication. The change in the FPS score over time was compared between the 3 treatment groups using a generalized estimating equation model.

Results: Although all 3 treatment groups demonstrated a decrease in the FPS score over time, there were no significant differences between the groups. Among the 66 total children enrolled in the 3 treatment groups, there were no statistically significant differences in demographics or injury characteristics. There were 28 subjects with fractures. Immobilization of the injury demonstrated a significant reduction in the FPS score. Subjects in the combination treatment group reported more adverse effects.

Conclusions: Oxycodone, ibuprofen, and the combination all provide effective analgesia for mild-to-moderate orthopedic injuries in children. Oxycodone or ibuprofen, alone, can be given, thereby avoiding the increase in adverse effects when given together.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Child
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Emergency Treatment / methods*
  • Female
  • Fractures, Bone / complications*
  • Humans
  • Ibuprofen / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Oxycodone / therapeutic use*
  • Pain / drug therapy*
  • Pain / etiology*
  • Pain Measurement
  • Prospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wounds, Nonpenetrating / complications*


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Oxycodone
  • Ibuprofen