Topiramate (TPM) is a neuromodulatory agent that was initially approved as an antiepileptic drug and is increasingly used in the treatment of a number of neurological and metabolic disorders. Among its various pharmacological actions, TPM has been shown to inhibit the activity of specific carbonic anhydrase enzymes in the kidney. This action is associated with the development of metabolic acidosis, hypocitraturia, hypercalciuria and elevated urine pH, leading to an increased risk of kidney stone disease. Despite the cautionary note in the package insert of TPM, the extent of these complications has not been fully explored. Few prescribing physicians are aware of these complications, underscoring the need for improved surveillance. Because the drug is among the most frequently prescribed agents in the US, more controlled studies are required to determine the prevalence of kidney stone disease among TPM users, and the optimal approach to prevent and treat nephrolithiasis in these individuals.