Complete deficiency in activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), a heterochromatin 1-binding protein, results in dramatic changes in gene expression, neural tube closure defects, and death at gestation day 9 in mice. To further understand the cellular roles played by ADNP, the HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line that allows efficient transfection with recombinant DNA was used as a model for the identification of ADNP-interacting proteins. Recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-ADNP was localized to cell nuclei. When nuclear extracts were subjected to immunoprecipitation with specific GFP antibodies followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, several minor protein bands were observed in addition to GFP-ADNP. In-gel protein digests followed by mass spectrometry identified BRG1, BAF250a, and BAF170, all components of the SWI/SNF (mating type switching/sucrose nonfermenting) chromatin remodeling complex, as proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with ADNP. These results were verified utilizing BRG1 antibodies. ADNP short hairpin RNA down-regulation resulted in microtubule reorganization and changes in cell morphology including reduction in cell process formation and cell number. These morphological changes are closely associated with the SWI/SNF complex multifunctionality. Taken together, the current study uncovers a molecular basis for the essential function of the ADNP gene and protein.