Capsular contracture is a highly distressing, difficult complication after breast augmentation for both the patient and the surgeon. Although capsular contracture is a multifactorial process, one common denominator in the successful treatment of this complication is believed to be the abatement of inflammation. Leukotriene antagonists have recently emerged as effective prophylactic agents in reactive airway diseases. Anecdotal reports have indicated that zafirlukast (Accolate, AstraZeneca) effectively reverses capsular contracture. A prospective study of capsular contracture in 120 female patients in whom a total of 216 prostheses were implanted was performed. The hardness of capsular contracture was assessed by means of the mammary compliance method (Anton Paar Mammacompliance system). The patients were divided into two groups: patients in group A received zafirlukast for a 6-month period, while those in group B received vitamin E. The results show a significant decrease of the values of breast compliance after 6 months in group A but not in group B and that the variation in compliance after 6 months in group A compared to group B is statistically significant. In zafirlukast-treated patients, we observed a reduction in mammary compliance of 7.69 percent after 1 month, 16.78 percent after 3 months and 24.01 percent after 6 months. The present study suggests that zafirlukast may be effective in reducing pain and breast capsule distortion in patients with longstanding contracture who are either not surgical candidates or who do not wish to undergo surgery.