Novel phenotypic markers and screening score for the metabolic syndrome in adult Asian Indians

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Feb;79(2):e1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2007.08.002. Epub 2007 Sep 18.


Aims: The metabolic syndrome (MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are common in Asian Indians. Simple yet reliable phenotypic markers are needed for early detection of the MS in Asian Indians.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 126 subjects either with of without the MS were compared. Anthropometric measurements (including assessment of novel phenotypic markers) and metabolic profile were done.

Results: On univariate analysis, age more than 35 year, female gender, presence of buffalo hump and double chin and family history of T2DM were significantly associated with the MS. A metabolic syndrome screening (MSS) score (1.0 x double chin+1.2 x buffalo hump+1.3 x gender+1.4 x age category) was generated with a cutoff value of 3.5 out of total points of 4.9, with sensitivity and specificity 82% and 71% [area under the curve=0.83; 95% confidence Interval (0.76-0.90)], respectively in detecting individuals with the MS.

Conclusion: We describe buffalo hump and double chin as novel phenotypic markers for detection of MS for the first time. The MSS score generated by us may be a useful tool for detection of MS in adult Asian Indians; however, it needs further validation in a larger sample of Asian Indians and in other ethnic groups.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anatomy
  • Asians
  • Body Size
  • Chin / anatomy & histology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Markers
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / standards
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / genetics*
  • Phenotype
  • Reference Values


  • Genetic Markers